Sunday, July 31, 2016

Pleasing those Pollinators!

A garden can be a butterfly banquet, providing you offer a colorful array of nectar-and-pollen rich host plants for butterflies to feast upon. Butterflies (and other beneficial pollinators) provide a vital function in the garden, pollinating flowers and vegetables as they flutter among the plants.

This afternoon our backyard garden had a variety of winged visitors… hummingbirds, yellow swallowtails, and bumblebees. Each visitor was drawn to the Monarda blooms, which provide nectar and pollen for all. My favorite cultivar of Monarda is ‘Raspberry Wine’ (hardy to Zone 4) with its vivid magenta flowers that invite pollinators during the hottest weeks of summer. Monarda, also known as bee balm, stands nearly four feet tall and grows aggressively so requires some space in the garden. (It has square stems which can be an indication the plant will spread. The ‘Raspberry Wine’ cultivar thrives in a sunny location and is also resistant to powdery mildew.)

Besides butterflies, bumblebees hover over the Monarda blossoms, gathering nectar and pollen granules continuously. I watched a yellow swallowtail for several minutes, gathering nectar from various flowers; she wasn’t deterred by the bumblebees. These bees have velvety bodies which are ideal for collecting pollen and moving it from blossom to blossom. If you watch closely, sometimes bumblebees use a vibrating technique to loosen pollen granules, allowing them to collect more pollen.
Each gardener can assist our bees, hummingbirds and pollinators by planting pollen-rich plants, as well as host plants for female butterflies to deposit eggs. Ideally, a succession of blooms throughout the growing season will keep these desirable pollinators coming back to YOUR space. (One of my horticulture instructors taught us to include flowering perennials within the borders of the veggie garden. This keeps pollinators coming back to your garden. Thanks for the great tip, Ms. Laurie Weiss!) Here are a few pollinator attracting plants: coneflower, milkweed, geranium, liatris, hyssop, lavender and… monarda!

M. Lynn Schmid,
Certified Master Gardener A.A.S. Landscape/Horticulture/Arboriculture

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Join us for our Fireflys & Fairies event TONIGHT! 5-8pm

Join us for a summer evening in our gardens! Wear your wings, play some games, see the trains & get your face painted too! 
Create your fairy garden at our workshop with your family!

FREE admission to this event :)
See u soon!

Monday, June 20, 2016

'Tis the Season.... for Japanese Beetles

With the onset of hot summer days, our trees, shrubs and flowers are lush and lovely, beckoning us to savor the beauty each provides for our viewing pleasure.  
Of course, hot summer days also mark the arrival of adult Japanese beetles to our landscapesthese insects with their voracious appetites do NOTHING to enhance our summer gardening experiences!  

Adult Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) can decimate blooms and foliage of more than 300 species of plants (they cannot be considered picky eaters!)  Some of their favorite deciduous trees are in the genus Tilia.   The foliage of Tilia cordata (little leaf linden) and Tilia americana (American linden or basswood) are extremely attractive to adult Japanese beetles.   However, I also encountered an infestation on the thick foliage of Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak).  These beetles can skeletonize foliage on ANY plant they visit from June through August! 

The genus Rosa provides another culinary delicacy for these adult insects; in the photos I took at a botanical garden this week, the beetles were congregating on Rosa floribunda ‘Cherish.’  Rose bushes provide a perfect gathering place where they meet and mate all summer long!  These gorgeous ‘Cherish’ blooms have no defense against the ravages of a Japanese beetle infestation.  

Even the buds are a favorite gathering place for these little destroyers 
“Little” is a relative word.  Popillia japonica is much larger than a lady beetle or ladybug Measuring 3/8” (10mm) long by 1/4" (7mm) wide, Japanese beetles sport iridescent rust-colored wings and barbed black legs. Beneath their wings a patch of iridescent lime green appears, but it’s not apparent when wings are closed.  Japanese beetles are classified as arthropods in the order of Coleoptera.   Adult females often deposit their eggs in lush, irrigated turf throughout summer and early fall.   The larvae, when hatched, feed upon turf roots causing brown, dead patches of grass.  These larvae are “C” shaped white grubs with brown heads. 

Originally from Japan, in the early 1900’s the Japanese beetle was introduced into the USA accidentally from plants brought to NJ.  The beetles have found ways to migrate to other states, and in 2015 for the first time, they found my raspberry patch in Southeastern Wisconsin.  I captured and drowned dozens in soapy water (the preferred method for organic gardeners to kill this little destroyer.)  However, they ate most of the tender buds, preventing berries from developing.   Result:  a scant yield of twelve raspberries from nearly one hundred canes!  

Keep containers of dish soap/water solution in covered containers in your garden areas.  Scout for Japanese beetles often; new migrations can arrive daily.   Drown in soap water—do not “squish” them— or a pheromone is released that will attract more beetles to your garden!  

M. Lynn Schmid,   Certified Master Gardener
A.A.S. Landscape/Horticulture/Arboriculture  

Saturday, April 30, 2016

SPRING & Tulip Time have arrived!

Gardeners and homeowners in Southeastern Wisconsin hunger for spring flowering bulbs to appear during April; this hunger can be appeased only when sunny days in April warm the soil and air, creating an ideal environment for tulips (and other bulbs we planted last autumn) to emerge. 
Initially the tulips’ strap-like leaves emerge.  Next, we watch patiently awaiting some pointed buds to appear; we wait… and we wait.

The deer and rabbits are also waiting for tulips to emerge; the genus Tulipa is a crowd favorite for deer and rabbits, who will unmercifully munch on foliage and buds, even before blooms have opened.  Commercially produced deer and rabbit repellants are available at garden centers, with mixed reviews on their effectiveness.  
Some gardeners sprinkle bits of human hair (from a recent haircut) around tulip clusters; sprinkling bottled hot sauce around the foliage also can serve as a deterrent.

As you can see from the park-bench-tulip-patch photo I snapped at a botanical garden, tulips planted in large masses create a dramatic splash of color in the spring garden.   
This small cluster of tulip buds shows the status of tulips growing in my yard—still tightly closed due to our cold days and nights during April

Although a few April days provided spectacular weather, most days were snowy, cold, damp, misty, windy or cloudy.   In addition, during the evening of April 25 this area experienced a WWP (Weird Weather Phenomenon!)  All occurred within a five minute time frame:  wind, heavy rainfall, sunshine, an intense rainbow AND hailstones which measured 1-1/2” in diameter!    (I even took pictures of the hailstones, since I never before witnessed such large hail—it was a bizarre April day in Wisconsin!) 
Thankfully, most tulips were still closed during this storm so none were damaged.  The next time I am impatiently awaiting the opening of our tulip blossoms, I might look to the skies to see if another WWP is headed our way! 

M. Lynn Schmid,   Certified Master Gardener
A.A.S. Landscape/Horticulture/Arboriculture

Thursday, March 17, 2016

Grape Gum in the Garden??!?

Although our “Goodness in the Garden” blog primarily addresses growing conditions in Southeast Wisconsin, outdoor plants aren’t yet blooming in SE Wisconsin!  For a change, let’s feature a plant which thrives AND blooms during March in the Southwestern part of our country (sadly, it only grows in USDA  Zone 9-11 but it surely is a delightful plant to see and smell.)
This plant is known by various names:  
Texas mountain laurel or mescal bean

The genus of this woody evergreen was changed some time ago—currently it’s known as Calia secundiflora (formerly Sophora secundiflora).  This heat-hardy plant is classified in the Fabaceae family; it forms brownish gray pods, but its seeds are poisonous.   
Texas mountain laurel captures attention when it blooms in spring and emits an intoxicating aroma, which reminds me of grape chewing gum; others claim it smells like grape soda!

Texas mountain laurel is a total sun lover and adapts to modest amounts of moisture.  Its blue violet blooms are a deep hue, fading to light purple and white as they age.   The plant appears in botanical gardens in Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, but also thrives on rocky ledges where only the most tenacious plants survive.  (I saw several specimens growing in the wild, on steep, rocky slopes in New Mexico.   It seemed happy there!  Since this plant does NOT handle severe pruning, it might be happier on the side of a mountain than in a formal garden.)

Much like the lilac bushes we grow in Wisconsin, the flower buds begin to develop around August, but those beautiful, aromatic purple blooms emerge in spring.   Although I’ll have to be content with growing lilacs in Southeast Wisconsin,   I have never smelled a lilac that compared to the unique, grape-gum aroma of the amazing Texas mountain laurel!

M. Lynn Schmid,   Certified Master Gardener
 A.A.S. Landscape/Horticulture/Arboriculture

Monday, February 29, 2016

Hot Peppers, Ornamental Peppers... a New Adventure for your Garden!

A special note to our loyal readers… You have helped us achieve more than 8,000 views during past four years (FEB 2012 – FEB 2016).  Thanks for allowing us to share our passion for gardening with you every month!      Keep on planting, “Goodness in the Garden” Staff

HOT Peppers, Ornamental peppers… a new adventure for your garden!

In February 2012, when our “Goodness in the Garden Blog” was created, I wrote a blog entry about cayenne peppers.  This blog reminded readers that the capsaicin component of a pepper can be beneficial to heart health; pepper plants are also a striking addition to the garden, especially late in the season when each cayenne begins to turn from green to a vivid shade of red.  With varied culinary uses, as well as potential health benefits, the cayenne pepper is a WIN-WIN for home gardeners in Wisconsin and throughout the USA.

In February 2016, I was fortunate to spend an afternoon with a Specialist at New Mexico State University on the Las Cruces campus.  The Chile Pepper Institute staff informed me “The Chile Pepper Institute is the only international, non-profit organization devoted to education and research related to Capsicum, or chile peppers.”   Their passion is “Educating the World” about peppers, as stated on each seed packet.   (

We discussed the Chile Pepper Institute’s methods for seed propagation to ensure each variety remains pure and “true to seed” each year.  
Since the genus Capsicum is open pollinated, it is challenging to keep each cultivar from cross pollinating with others, so precise techniques are utilized by the staff.   I purchased four varieties of Capsicum annuum that will be new to my garden in Southeast Wisconsin.  Some will be ornamental, but also edible (… and all quite HOT!) 

For those who don’t wish to eat these hot little beauties, remember peppers can also add a delightful dash of color to autumn floral arrangements.   In Southeast Wisconsin, the peppers planted in late spring should be turning vivid colors just in time for autumn d├ęcor.  

Try some new varieties of peppers in YOUR garden this season… let them take you on a new adventure!

M. Lynn Schmid,   Certified Master Gardener
A.A.S. Landscape/Horticulture/Arboriculture